These winners are usually well-connected elites and transnational companies. SAPs share a common objective: to move countries away from self-directed models of national development that focus on the domestic market and toward outward-looking development models that stress the importance of complete integration into the dominant global structures of trade, finance, and production. Structural adjustment is a term used to describe the policies requested by the IMF in condition for financial aid when dealing with an economic crisis in. The result can be increasing political instability (such as riots over food prices), outbreaks of guerrilla violence, and widespread disaffection with (and nonparticipation in) electoral political systems. As a result, the standard structural adjustment package advocated by the IFIs and the U.S. government fails to address a country’s individual needs, thereby generating an array of economic, social, political, and environmental problems. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the U.S. has been a principal force in imposing Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) on most countries of the South. After decades of subverting populist and interventionist central governments, the IFIs have recently accepted some of the criticisms leveled against their neoliberal notions of a minimalist state. Structural Adjustment Programs have been adopted by Kenya since the late 1980s along IMF-WB lines in order to solve the problems of growing foreign debt, fiscal and balance of payments (BOP) deficits, shortage of foreign exchange, stagnant productive sectors (especially the export-oriented sectors), and rising levels of unemployment. Likewise their late concern for good governance only surfaces after successive SAPs have already dismantled many important state institutions and continue to undermine the ability of governments to exercise control over national economic development. Following an ideology known as neoliberalism, and spearheaded by these and other institutions known as the Washington Consensus (for being based in Washington D.C.), Structural Adjustment Policies (SAPs) have been imposed to ensure debt repayment and economic restructuring. Structural Adjustment Policies: Main Features and Social Implications The liberalization of trade does make imported items less expensive, but most people in low-income countries consume little besides basic necessities. Largely championed by the Reagan administration and Margaret Thatcher’s government in Britain, the neoliberal principles that shape SAPs gained prominence in the IFIs in the 1980s. Diese Maßnahmen sind für jedes Land einzeln zugeschnitten, jedoch weisen die meisten folgende Merkmale auf: Haushaltsdisziplin, Subventionsabbau, Deregulierung, kompetitive Wechselkurse, Abbau von Devisenverkehrsbeschränkungen, Privatisierung von Staatsbetrieben. reallocation of resources between sectors, changes in the distribution of income and institutional reform. In their wake, SAPs have bankrupted local industries, increased dependency on food imports, gutted social services, and fostered a widening gap between rich and poor. The country in need (the borrower) approaches the IMF and World Bank (the lenders) for a loan. Page 4) notes that a UN survey of 12 African structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) found little improvement in export earnings following such devaluation and that, since the demand for most of Africa's exports are inelastic - price fluctuations change demand very little devaluation of African currencies has led to steep declines in export revenues. Furthermore, U.S. and IFI debt-relief programs should be delinked from SAP conditionalities. liegen in ihrer Zuständigkeit.“. To assist African development, Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) provided “conditional lending” (Thomson, 2010: 197) – conditional, in that governments receiving debt relief were obliged to adjust their economic policy.In general, ‘adjustment’ meant liberalising and privatising, although SAPs were wider in scope in that their developmental aims were highly political. Cit. At the World Bank, new leadership installed by the U.S. (which traditionally appoints the president of the World Bank) touted SAPs as comprehensive, long-term solutions for debtor nations. STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT PROGRAMME IN TANZANIA Tanzania got her independence in 1961 at that time it was under the leadership of Julius K. Nyerere, Tanzania adopted and practiced socialism even though, the country was a multi-ethnic society, all the groups were united by the language of Kiswahili introduces by Nyerere. A structural adjustment is set of economic reforms that a country must adhere to in order to secure a loan from the International Monetary Fund and/or the World Bank. While the name has changed, with PRSPs, the World Bank is still forcing countries to adopt the same types of policies as SAPs. The U.S. should carefully examine what IMF Managing Director Michel Camdessus terms “the second generation of structural reform,” which includes further neoliberal macroeconomic reforms along with good governance conditionality and measures to provide temporary relief to those impacted by SAPs. SAPs are based on a short-term, profit-maximization model that perpetuates poverty, inequality, and environmental degradation. Other recommendations for a more responsible U.S. foreign policy include the following: Issues: Democracy & Governance, Labor, Trade, & Finance, Women, Foreign Policy In Focus - A project of the Institute for Policy Studies Though macroeconomic factors need not be excluded from Washington’s policies, they should be part of a broader definition of U.S. national interests overseas and should encompass more than simply facilitating U.S. trade and investment. Structural adjustments … But while government balance sheets may improve, SAPs have failed to establish a base for sustainable, balanced economic development. Strukturanpassungsprogramm (SAP, englisch: Structural Adjustment Program, von der Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility – deshalb auch ESAF-Program) bezeichnet wirtschaftliche Maßnahmen in Ländern der Dritten Welt, die vom Internationalen Währungsfonds (IWF) und der Weltbank als Bedingung für die Vergabe von Krediten oder den Schuldenerlass im Rahmen der HIPC-Initiative verlangt werden. Economic Structural Adjustment Programs (ESAP), Paper 5 Zimbabwe History Advanced level. Conditions and terms of all lending should be stated publicly so that the recipient country’s citizenry is fully aware of the potential impact of lending agreements. Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) according to leftwitch (1996) is defined as a set of institutional and economic measures intended to solve the macroeconomic problems facing developing countries by correcting a country’s borrowing deficit, reducing the intervention of governments in the economy and opening up the state’s economy to the world market. In agriculture, SAPs augment the economic liberalization resulting from free trade agreements, undermining peasant agriculture while reinforcing export-oriented agribusiness (and its dependence on dangerous agrochemicals). It is most likely that the countries in which SAPs are implemented differ in terms of their economies and pre-program conditions from non-program countries but also from each other. Instead, it continues to pursue short-term gain, viewing the strict economic reforms required by SAPs as the best way to promote U.S. economic welfare. The U.S. should take the lead in advocating a major role for borrowing governments and their citizen representatives in determining loan conditions. Failures of Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) in Sub-Saharan Africa In this section, I will critically carry out an in-depth analysis of the fundamental shortcomings of the Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) by carefully looking into the critical aspects of the SAPs and how they relate to the social, economic and political weakening of Sub-Saharan Africa. Die dort durchgeführten Reformen in Gesundheit, Bildung, Industrie, Landwirtschaft, Verkehr, Umwelt usw. In addition, both Washington and the IFIs consistently fail to broaden the scope of SAPs to consider poverty, unemployment, the health of the domestic market, the impact of development patterns on the environment, and a government’s capacity to ensure that the benefits of economic development are equitably distributed. They generally entail severe reductions in government spending and employment, higher interest rates, currency devaluation, lower real wages, sale of government enterprises, reduced tariffs, and liberalization of foreign investment regulations. Layoffs of government workers, wage constraints, higher interest rates, reduced government spending, and the shutdown of domestic industries all contribute to the shrinking of the domestic market. How do you establish it and measure it? In order to improve the terms of the current loan or to get a new one, the country in … The policies are designed to tackle the root cause of the problem and provide a framework for long term development and long term growth. But the IFIs only tend to adopt neostructuralist programs of social investment after the dirty work of neoliberal structural adjustment has been mostly completed. With the waning of North-South private capital flows, indebted countries became increasingly dependent on the IFIs, which conditioned new lending on the implementation of SAPs. SAPs benefit a narrow stratum of the private sector—mostly those involved in export production, trade brokering, and portfolio finance. Structural adjustment programs were sponsored by the Bretton Woods Institutions (BWIs) and ubiquitously included capital account and trade openness, devaluation, a reduction in the public sector and privatization of publicly owned companies. The debt crisis, which reached crisis proportions by 1982, gave the IFIs the leverage needed to impose SAPs on the debt-ridden countries of the South. If economic standards and the adoption of economic policies are conditioned to financial assistance, they should not be stricter than those that the U.S. and other donor nations find acceptable for themselves, and they should be mutually agreed upon by both the U.S. and the borrowing country. Social safety nets and good governance reforms do not compensate for the serious flaws that SAPs introduce by deregulating laws and diminishing the state’s capacity to protect the welfare of its citizens. Political conditionality was used to link adherence to the programs with the successful receipt of development finance and loans. By Structural adjustment programs (SAPs) consist of loans provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) to countries that experience extensive economic crises. Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) are economic policies for developing countries that have been promoted by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) since the early 1980s by the provision of loans conditional on the adoption of such policies. The term "Structural Adjustment Program" has gained such a negative connotation that the World Bank and IMF launched a new initiative, the Poverty Reduction Strategy Initiative, and makes countries develop Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers. The economic policies dictated by the IFIs and Washington have greatly facilitated the process of global economic integration. Content under a Creative Commons Attribution licence, by Carol Welch, Friends of the Earth, and Jason Oringer, In 2016–17, in response to job shedding in the automotive, manufacturing and energy industries, the Department provided structural adjustment programs designed to help retrenched workers find new employment as quickly as possible. The U.S. could choose to spearhead an effort to shift the focus of structural adjustment. Starting in the 1980s, the U.S. also routinely began conditioning its aid agreements on acceptance of a package of economic reforms and adherence to the prescriptions of the World Bank and IMF. But what does ‘successful’ mean? The U.S. plays a fundamental role in designing and financing structural adjustment programs of the main IFIs, namely the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), as well as those of the regional multilateral banks such as the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). It managed seven structural adjustment programs—covering the automotive industry, Arrium, Alinta, BlueScope Steel, Caterpillar, Queensland Nickel In the 1980s, SAPs became virtually synonymous with IFI lending. A structural adjustment program is a plan implemented by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in a developing nation to try to get their economies to be more productive. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FOREWORD Under the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) introduced in 1986, Nigeria reformed its foreign exchange system, trade policies, and business and agricultural regulations. Increased unemployment and decreased government services are the most direct blows, but changes in the tax system often emphasize easy-to-collect, regressive sales taxes that also disproportionately affect the lower classes. But SAPs are driven more by neoliberal ideological principles than by objective evaluations of a country’s specific economic problems and potential. The Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) are created with the goal of reducing the borrowing country’s fiscal imbalances. IMF Lending to Poor Countries—How does the PRGF differ from the ESAF? The underlying structural reasons for poverty, unemployment, and malnourishment are left unaddressed. Foreign loans and aid agreements should be transparent. Through its financial clout in the IFIs, its central role in shaping global economic integration, and its own bilateral lending programs, Washington has the power to change or eliminate SAPs. Summary. Structural adjustment " is the name given to a set of "free market" economic policy reforms imposed on developing countries by the Bretton Woods institutions (the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF)) as a condition for receipt of loans. SAPs usually include several basic components geared toward reducing inflation, promoting exports, meeting debt-payment schedules, and decreasing budget deficits. Structural adjustment is dead, long live structural adjustment. The U.S. plays a fundamental role in designing and financing structural adjustment programs of the main IFIs, namely the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), as well as those of the regional multilateral banks such as the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). April 1, 1998. Good governance measures are now a criteria for the IFIs’ stamp of approval. The leading role of the IMF has proven problematic in many ways. The goal of such a program is to help the borrowing nation pay off its debts and have a growing economy that will sustain them into the future. Eine Studie des Entwicklungsökonomen William Easterly konnte keinen positiven Effekt von Strukturanpassungsprogrammen auf Wirtschaftswachstum finden.. In its insistence on the promotion of the private sector, Washington fails to recognize the fundamental importance of government regulations and safety nets in fostering and maintaining economic development. The bank from which a borrowing country receives its loan depends upon the type of necessity. Ekei Etim (op. Immediate debt relief for impoverished countries should be a priority for the U.S. and the IFIs. Structural Adjustment A government program in a developing country making changes to economic or monetary policies in order to better facilitate growth. The weak state of the domestic market exacerbates the worsening socioeconomic conditions. What are Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs)? " The lender services the loan based on the assumption that certain fiscal policies will take place within the borrow- country. Loan conditions and program documents should be publicly available so that all parties are informed and accountable. Thus, reforms intended to open countries to foreign trade, investment, and finance may result in increased exports and greater access to foreign capital, but they also heighten financial volatility and speculative investment, flood the affected countries with imported luxury goods, undermine local industry, and constrict local buying power. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 25. Title: 2015 World Bank Group / International Monetary Fund Spring Meetings. Die sozialen Dimensionen der Strukturanpassung – eine Zwischenbilanz, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Strukturanpassungsprogramm&oldid=202209219, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. The SAPs are supposed to allow the economies of the developing countries to become more market oriented. The structural adjustment program is essentially a conditional loan. Die Maßnahmen, deren Ursprünge auf die Bekämpfung der Schuldenkrise der 80er Jahre in den Entwicklungsländern zurückgehen, basieren auf marktwirtschaftlichen Prinzipien.
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