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types of slaughtering methods

types of slaughtering methods

2. Electrical stunning includes hand-held and automated electrical stunning equipment. If done correctly, the circuit from electrifying the electrodes will produce an electric field in the brain that depolarizes or hyperpolarizes the neuronal membranes resulting in an epileptiform seizure, which renders the animal unconscious. This ismandatory in the best-known of ritualistic slaughters, the Halal (Islamic),the Kosher (Jewish) and the Jhakta (Sikh) methods. the recommended equipment settings for each size of bird that is stunned including specification of: the frequency of current (AC/DC) and which one is used for which step, the time of stun (taking into account the line speed and length of the stunner), number of birds stunned at the same time and for each step in a two-phase system, the protocol for the maintenance of the equipment for salinity flow. The section reads as follows  Either of the following two methods of slaughtering and handling are hereby found to be humane: a) In the case of cattle, calves, horses, mules, sheep, swine, and other livestock, all animals are rendered insensible to pain by a single blow or gunshot or an electrical, chemical or other means that is rapid and effective, before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast, or cut. 1901 et seq.) … Electrical head-only stunning includes hand-held and automated electrical stunning equipment. Electroimmobilization may occur if the current bypasses the brain in the multiple bird electrical waterbath or plate systems. Examples of these other cases include, the brine level being too low or the bird being too small to contact the water properly. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. In most traditional slaughters, however, there are no fast rules,at least in Africa, hence some o… Decapitation is to be performed by trained personnel or effective automatic decapitation equipment, using well maintained equipment (sharp knives or decapitation equipment) as per the licence holder's animal welfare PCP. For example, this can occur if a bird swan necks and another body part makes contact with the electrified waterbath first for electrical waterbath stunners and therefore the brain is bypassed with no resulting epileptic seizure. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Line dressing —> Skin forelegs, hindlegs, neck and breast; hand-work (facing and fisting) and pulling (backing-down). The licence holder's written animal welfare PCP should include the following preventive measures, procedures and information: monitoring, verification and corrective action procedures to ensure birds are effectively stunned and do not return to sensibility before bleeding, in the case of irreversible CAS stunning, the outcome is that the birds are dead upon exit from the container; however this should be verified through validation or documented evidence that this outcome is consistently met. the right equipment is used for the right species at all times, the current (amperage and voltage) is adequate for the species slaughtered to avoid electroimmobilization, employees who conduct the stunning require adequate training for the specific equipment used, animals are well restrained and stay calm, for head-only stunning, the outcome is a reversible stun, the electrodes must always be placed to span the brain for the current to flow properly through the brain for all food animals. Emergency killing of poultry are often methods that are simple and quick to use. is a United States federal law designed to decrease suffering of livestock during slaughter.It was approved on August 27, 1958. Department of Animal Science and Nutrition The meat processing industry is one of the largest consumers of total freshwater used in the agricultural and livestock industry worldwide. therefore, the electrode(s) are not positioned on the animal's neck or muzzle, for example for rabbits: when electrical head-only stunning equipment for rabbits is used to make contact with the muzzle of the rabbit and not span the brain, this will cause electroimmobilization only and not an effective stun, for head only electric stunning, the stun-to-stick interval should not exceed 15 seconds for most species, for head-to-body stunning, the outcome is generally an irreversible outcome, when done properly. A preliminary series of experiments was performed to assess specifically the impact of each technique on animalwelfare aspects,while thesecond seriesfocused on the quality of the flesh obtained. If a landmark other than the midline frontal is used then it will require documented evidence or validation by the licence holder to show the alternative approach can stun the animal properly: for example, a poll (top of the head) entry using firearms may be more useful for heavily horned sheep and all goats, captive bolt stunning may be penetrative or non-penetrative, both methods rely on the outcome of instantaneous and massive disruption of brain function to render the animal unconscious, Cartridges with compressed air, gunpowder or a spring under tension drive the bolt either against the skull or through it, the outcome causes unconsciousness from the combined effect of the concussive blow to the head and the penetrating bolt creating damage to the brain as it passes through and retracts, the impact alone creates pressure or shock waves that have multiple effects disrupting normal brain function, including flattening of the cerebrum contralateral to the shot, the passage and retraction of the bolt creates additional damage from a cavitation effect, hemorrhage, bone fragmentation, crushing, laceration and tearing of axons and blood vessels, even when the targeting is not optimal, such as when the animal moves, the animal may still be correctly stunned because of the massive damage from the impact and local damage of the bolt; therefore, slightly lower or slightly higher targeting can still work as long as essential parts of the brainstem are still damaged, however if the relevant structures are not damaged or the damage is limited, the animal may be still conscious or partially conscious and will require a second stun, targeting too high will only reach the cerebellum, targeting too low will only slightly damage the frontal cortex with the undesirable outcome that the animal is wounded but conscious, the outcome relies on the mushroom head causing unconsciousness from the concussive impact of the blow alone, rapid oscillations in the resulting pressure waves cause the resulting loss of consciousness, there may also be concurrent fracturing of the skull from the impact and internal brain hemorrhage, it requires extreme accuracy to be effective; therefore the landmarks are extremely important, for this reason, it should be used only in very young and small animals such as poultry, rabbits, and ruminants weighing less than 10kg and the head should be well-restrained to help with the accuracy of the blow, However, in immature animals, this method may crush the skull and result in an ineffective stun. The conditions for Halal slaughter can be summarized as follows: The animal to be slaughtered must be from the categories that are permitted for Muslims to eat. For poultry, there is the advantage that the birds can be stunned in the transport containers if they are specially designed modules for this purpose and therefore, the birds are minimally handled while still conscious. Ritual slaughter is performed by a throat cut, which severs all soft tissues of the throat (muscles, blood vessels, esophagus, trachea, nerves) without preslaughter stunning. The licence holder's written PCP should include the following preventive measures, procedures and information: the stunning equipment is clearly defined which type of stunning it is meant to provide , including reversible or irreversible stunning outcome, the protocol requiring that it is used properly as per the manufacturer's specifications to result in an effective stun, the equipment is positioned correctly to span the brain for the current to flow through the brain, there is a written protocol for the routine maintenance of the equipment, frequency should include at a minimum at the startup of production, production shift changes, before each new lot of animals or employee shift changes. every establishment using gas stunning should have a written protocol that is linked to or is part of the establishment food safety PCP to identify DOAs and how identified DOAs are removed: the licence holder may choose to identify and remove DOAs either before or after the CAS step, the protocol may be based on an acceptable standard or practice that is derived from documented evidence (such as scientific articles or studies) or it may be the result of validation studies conducted in the establishment, the system (including the modules if using a system where birds are not removed) where birds are exposed to the gas and the equipment used to convey them through the system should be designed and maintained to avoid injury and unnecessary stress, the gas system should be designed so birds can be visually monitored during the induction phase, throughout the stunning phase and accessed if the conveyance system fails in accordance with the PCP corrective action procedures. 3. Temple Grandin – Updated June 2017 to include information on Zone of Transition between fully conscious and unconscious. licence holder has demonstrated that no other means of stunning is practical or works as well: for example, for horses, firearms may give a better stun than captive bolt stunning, depending on stun pen layout, horse temperament and nature, equipment operators are trained and competent to use the equipment and recognize the signs of an effective stun, caliber and range are suitable for the species and class of animal, the ammunition selected for the species and body type to be slaughtered provides effective stunning while minimizing over-penetration or the effects of misdirected bullets or ricochet, ammunition is stored in a clean dry area and has not aged excessively, the firearm is cleaned and maintained and stored to ensure it functions effectively, a bullet proof barrier between the stunning area and the kill floor to protect people from the effects of misdirected bullets, slugs, or ricochet, remote viewing to allow monitoring of stun efficacy and bleed-rail insensibility with protection from the effects of misdirected bullets or ricochet, a visible warning system to indicate when firearms are being discharged, back-up stunning equipment, readily available. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Some reasons for this include higher resistance from an individual bird or the bird's incorrect positioning when presented to the source of electricity. The animal must be alive at the time of slaughter. Both Halal and Kashrut methods of slaughtering animals are founded on the principles of non-suffering. WELCOME TO MY There are various methods available to stun larger animals, these include: Penetrating captive bolt - used on cattle, sheep and some pigs. Emus may be bled by cutting the major vessels near the cranial part of the neck similar to turkeys, staff members are able to observe, inspect, and access the animals for emergency re-stunning if required, during bleed out, if any animal returns to sensibility, the stun and slaughter of all other animals stop, and the situation is corrected immediately, no scalding or singeing , skinning or dressing procedure is performed on any animal until bleeding is complete and the animal is dead, bleeding occurs as soon as possible after stunning, especially if head-only electric stun is used, in general, best practice is under 15 seconds for head-only electric stunning; however since rabbits can return to sensibility rapidly, within 5 seconds is preferable, bleeding is to be performed by severing at least one jugular vein and carotid artery or by decapitation, when cutting the blood vessels using a transverse incision, it is recommended to severe both carotids and jugular veins for rapid bleed-out, decapitation is only acceptable after effective stunning, dressing procedures are not started until the rabbit is dead, both carotid arteries and jugular veins of birds should be severed since this is the fastest method of exsanguination and results in rapid blood loss and death, operational procedures that ensure birds do not pile up at the entry to the guide bars, monitoring the cut to ensure that it is properly placed (below the mandible), birds should be bled within 15 seconds of electric stunning, birds should bleed for at least 90 seconds, they are monitored on the bleed rail to ensure that they do not return to consciousness, they are dead before they enter the scald tank to avoid extreme suffering due to death from scalding if still possibly sensible, efficacy of the stunning and automated neck-cutting equipment should be checked by trained personnel each time the line starts up, at the start of each shift and at the beginning of a new lot of birds to ensure stunning and slaughter are effective and humane, efficacy of backup stunning equipment is checked at the same frequency to ensure the deviation procedure for failed stuns is working, there is zero tolerance for birds missing the automatic knife and being missed by the backup cutter after stunning methods that have any potential to be reversible, these animals have a strong possibility of entering the scald tank alive and fully conscious (uncut red birds), an uncut red bird represents a failure of the slaughter process, the cause of the failure should be immediately investigated by the licence holder, the licence holder should take immediate effective corrective actions to prevent similar failures, all incidents and related corrective actions should be documented, inadequately bled birds differ from uncut red birds, they have a neck cut, but for a variety of reasons, the bleed out is not effective, the probability, in general, is that these birds were dead before entering the scald tank, the presence of these mild to brick-red carcasses at the preselection station may be an indication of improper sticking, when carcasses have been neck-cut but have not bled out properly, the licence holder should evaluate the stunning and killing procedures, develop and implement a corrective action to prevent recurrence. The licence holder of the slaughter establishment should include written training protocols in the PCP to ensure that personnel who perform the task of stunning are able to check all animals to rule out the presence of consciousness. Many countries have adopted the principle of a two-stage process for the non-ritual slaughter of animals to ensure a rapid death with minimal suffering. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. A beating heart will continue to pump blood and will thus cause blood to circulate and exit a severed jugular more quickly. For ostriches and rheas, to promote better bleeding, it is preferable to sever the major blood vessels (jugular veins and carotids) in the caudal cervical area near the thoracic inlet provided the thoracic cavity is not penetrated. So there is a rigid adherence to strict procedure and none of hurried methods of the "production line" slaughter house. Different types of restraints are appropriate for different species: Cattle. Decapitation of birds can be used to slaughter birds, as a back-up process for birds that have not been properly rendered insensible by another method of stunning, such as an electric stunner or CAS. Please do not read further if you feel you may be negatively affected by the content. Anal region: Clear skin carefully from around anus avoiding puncturing it … See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. The bleeding must also be complete. Pre-stun shocks should be monitored and prevented since it is painful for the birds and the licence holder should take the necessary steps to prevent it, including the determination of the root cause. This Act requires the proper treatment and humane handling of all food animals slaughtered in USDA inspected slaughter plants. This method is also used for ritual slaughtering of sheep and cattle. Shields, Sara J., Raj, A.B.M, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 13:281 – 299, 2010: Girasole, Mariagrazia, et al, Ital J Food Saf. Swine 1. A five-year study of our humane slaughter training found that abattoirs earned a better reputation by using humane methods, helping them compete globally. the protocol for level of salinity used and its adjustment including: manufacturers recommended procedures to enhance the salinity of water to improve electrical conductivity, as required, correct flow of the brine to avoid preshock from the brine flowing out the entrance to the bath, maintenance and cleaning protocol of shackles for electric contact to prevent poor electrical conductivity, the protocol for staff for stopping the line in the stunning and bleeding areas in the event of a problem or communicating problems so that corrective action procedures can be immediately taken, the system used should have meters or the proper software if computerized that display or record the amperage (ammeter) and/or volts (voltmeter), frequency and duration of the stun, meters (voltmeters and ammeters) are best installed where clearly visible to staff operating the electrical water bath or plate stunning systems and to any person who monitors, verifies, inspects or audits the system, frequency should include at a minimum at the startup of production, production shift, before each new lot of birds or employee shift changes. Stunning methods may be irreversible which means the animal will not regain consciousness although the heart may still be beating. This assessment includes understanding that a given sign may be useful if it is present but not always if it absent, for example: Vocalization and spontaneous blinking, when present are reliable signs for consciousness but when absent are not reliable signs for unconsciousness. The most common methods of stunning include an apparatus that induces a concussion, referred to as concussive methods, the use of electricity to immobilize and concuss the … a protocol to monitor the behaviour of animals during the induction of unconsciousness so that corrective actions can be implemented for observable problems: such as animals piling up or falling on top of each, vocalizing or attempting to escape, the measures to ensure that exposure time and gas concentration are sufficient to ensure animals do not regain consciousness before death by bleeding, the measures to ensure sufficient line space to shackle and bleed stunned animals during line stoppages, corrective action procedures to ensure humane stunning occurs during line stoppages, corrective action procedures to ensure that there is well maintained back-up stunning equipment available at all times. There is the risk for any stunning method to fail; however with well trained and qualified staff, equipment used according to the manufacturer's specifications and which is always kept well maintained, these risks should be controllable to the point that the outcome of avoidable suffering can be achieved. The threshold current necessary to induce immediate loss of consciousness for effective stunning is more than that required to produce seizures or loss of muscular reflexes as occurs with electroimmobilization: electroimmobilization without loss of consciousness can result in avoidable suffering to the animal. Not only can the stunning method itself cause suffering if ineffectively done, it can result in the completely unacceptable situation where a still conscious animal is exposed to further dressing procedures that will cause it great anguish before it dies. Signs of effective stun include ataxia, loss of posture and wing flapping from tonic/clonic convulsions caused by the anoxia. This opinion on the killing of rabbits for human consumption (‘slaughtering’) responds to two mandates: one from the European Parliament (EP) and the other from the European Commission. Electrical methods include waterbath, head‐only and head‐to‐body; however, in practice for slaughtering birds, only the first two are reported in the scientific literature and will be described in this opinion. Process of slaughtering to which it applies: Gas stunning methods. Waterbath and plate stunners are available as single phase or multiphase systems: either only one electrical phase of one waveform and current amplitude is used, or two phases of differing waveforms and/or current amplitudes are used consecutively: For example, for a two plate, two phase system: one phase delivers an AC (lower frequency alternate current phase, with sinusoidal waveform) current and the other delivers a DC pulsed current (higher frequency, direct pulsating current phase), each phase section (AC and DC) should be equipped with meters to measure the amount of current, as well as voltage, being supplied to that section of the stunner to assess the effective functioning of the equipment, the calculations of the amount of current being provided to stun each bird is not the sum of the amount delivered to each phase since each section is a separate stunning phase of the entire system and the amount delivered to each bird depends on the number of birds in each stunning phase at one time, each phase section (AC and DC) should be supplied with sufficient current to render the bird insensible, otherwise there is a risk of ineffective stunning or electroimmobilization, the ground bar should come in contact with all shackles over the AC and DC phase sections. The licence holder's written PCP should include: written documentation that the equipment complies with the federal Firearms Act and all applicable provincial and local legislation and that firearms are well maintained as per manufacturer's recommendations, can be used as the primary method of stunning birds or rabbits in low volume establishments because of the slower line speeds, requires equipment appropriate for the species. The outcome of electrical stunning is to pass current of sufficient strength and duration through the brain to interrupt normal brain rhythmic electrical activity. Methods of slaughter used today by Non-Muslims. This guide is intended to instruct smallholders in the most humane methods of slaughtering poultry. For the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply: The licence holder's PCP should include the following preventive measures, procedures and information: CFIA Regulatory requirements for humane treatment of food animals during slaughtering activities under the Safe Food for Canadians: Controlled atmospheric stunning (CAS) references: General references for stunning and slaughter of food animals: References for physiology of stunning and signs of consciousness/unconsciousness: Intervalle entre l'étourdissement et la saignée, Captive bolt stunning of poultry or rabbits, Electrical stunning methods for mammalian food animals, Animal welfare PCP for gas stunning for pigs, Decapitation of poultry as a deviation procedure for missed stuns in poultry, Monitoring for signs of consciousness (sensibility) and unconsciousness (insensibility) in food animals after stunning, Cutting and bleeding methods for conventional slaughter, Cutting/bleeding of red meat species including ratites, Humane stunning and slaughter of food animals and post-cut management, Additional PCP Content for food animal welfare, Humane treatment of food animals at the slaughter establishment, Guidelines for Stunning Techniques of Mammalian Food Animals, Guidelines for the humane care and handling of food animals at slaughter, Guidelines for animal welfare Preventive Control Plans and self-audits for the slaughter of food animals, Guidelines for stunning techniques for avian food animals, including ratites, Low atmospheric pressure system for stunning broiler chickens, A new humane method of stunning broilers using low atmospheric pressure, Official Journal of the European Union - PDF (1,421 kb), A critical review of electrical water-bath stun systems for poultry slaughter and recent developments in alternative technologies, Optimization of stunning electrical parameters to improve animal welfare in a poultry slaughterhouse, Welfare aspects of the main systems of stunning and killing the main commercial species of animals, Report on good and adverse practices - Animal welfare concerns in relation to slaughter practices from the viewpoint of veterinary sciences, Recommended Animal Handling Guidelines & Audit Guide: A Systematic Approach to Animal Welfare, Consciousness, unconsciousness and death in the context of slaughter, Part I, Neurobiological mechanisms underlying stunning and killing, Consciousness, unconsciousness and death in the context of slaughter, Part II, Evaluation methods, Time to Loss of Consciousness and Its Relation to Behavior in Slaughter Pigs during Stunning with 80 or 95% Carbon Dioxide, Assessing unconsciousness in livestock at slaughter - PDF (8,635 kb), How to Determine Insensibility (Unconsciousness) in Cattle, Sheep and Pigs, tension in the nose , upper lip and curled tongue, The animal should remain in a state of unconsciousness that extends beyond the time required to use a neck cut to bleed the animal that results in death, The stunning method should result in minimal signs of distress in the animal before the loss of consciousness, the outcome of mechanical stunning produces a pathological state of the brain incompatible with consciousness and sensibility until the animal can be bled out, mechanical stunning requires proper targeting to achieve this outcome, the best landmark for the targeted area is a midline frontal approach, the projectile, when used, should be targeted towards the animal's brainstem for most consistent stunning results. 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